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THE MODERN AGE  1800’S - Present

TRENDS AND MOVEMENTS OF THE MODERN AGE

       

        1. “THE ENLIGHTENMENT”: RATIONALISM The belief that fundamental knowledge is based on human reason and the truth is found by rational analysis of ideas independent of empirical date, emotive attitudes, or authoritative pronouncements.  Rationalism is essentially philosophy skeptical about the Scripture and religious knowledge.

 

        2. DEISM The belief, based solely on reason, in the existence of a God as the creator of the universe who after setting it in motion abandoned it, assumed no control over life, exerted no influence on natural phenomena, and gave no revelation.  God reveals himself through natural scientific laws and cannot reveal himself through the Bible.  (Rousseau, Voltaire, freemasons.)

 

        3. A NEW MYSTICISM: CULTS  Romanticism, transcendentalism, spiritualism and others proliferate.  Cults based on “New and Special Revelation”, kin to Gnostics, are established. [Mormons, Adventist, Jehovah’s Witness, Christian Science, etc..]

 

        4. DENOMINATIONALISM  The tendency to separate into religious sects. (denomination- the act of naming)  American freedom of religion encourages the breaking down of large religious groups into smaller sects upon even small disagreements and the formation of new groups which mix different doctrines and beliefs from many religions and philosophy. (Mix N Match religions)  Large religious bodies also break into different groups based on ethnicity and language. (German, Dutch, Swiss, etc...)

 

        5. EVANGELISM, REVIVALS, AND SOCIAL REFORM  America becomes the location for religious activities.  Most new ideas and groups are originated in America where a great religious fervor exists.  Great movements to convert others by Evangelism mark the 1800’s.  Revivals and camp meetings are very common methods being used.  America exports their new religions back to Europe.  A new emphasis is placed on social missions.  Religious groups establish benevolence organizations, Religious Schools, Seminaries, social reform movements.

 

        6. THE RESTORATION MOVEMENT The tremendous lack of unity, religious rationalism and unscriptural practices; provokes several simultaneous movements to return to the original New Testament Christianity.  Many individuals recognized current religious practices have little in common with the Scripture, the religious groups are far too corrupt and tradition bound to “fix”, and simply adhering strictly to the Bible would return a person to the original New Testament church and religion.  The first half of the 1800’s is used to figure out just what the original faith that Jesus taught was like and what things were human additions.

 

THE MODERN AGE 1800’S - 1996

1784 - 1795 A.D. The Methodist Church established from the Church of England by John Wesley.

 1795 A.D. Deism declared the official religion of France

 1790’s Nationalism of American churches

           Universalist Church established (God will save everyone)

 1792 A.D. - 1840 A.D.  “Restoration Movements”,  Several groups decide to return to the New Testament church rather then continuing to try and reform current denominations.

 1800’s American Denominationalism:  many medium size sects form from “Mix-N-Match” groups, which mix different doctrines and beliefs and form new groups.  Main churches break into ethnic groups [German, Swiss, Dutch, etc..]  Methodist, Baptist, and Christians make the greatest gains.

 1810 A.D. Spain ends the Inquisition and reduces the power of the Catholic Church

 1815  A.D. American churches commit to missionary and social missions.  In many cases exporting the modified religions back to Europe.

 1830 A.D. Joseph Smith establishes The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormons) in Seneca County, New York. [Cult]

 1831 A.D. Campbell and Barton Stone movements join to practice New Testament Christianity.

 1844 A.D. The General Conference split over issues related to slavery and Episcopal authority, and the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, was formed at the Louisville convention in 1845.

1844 A.D. Seventh-Day Adventist established by William Miller, Ellen G. White in New York. [Cult] Grew out of the old Church of God (Seventh Day) established in England 1620.

 1859 A.D.  Evolutionary Theory by Charles Darwin, provides a medium for atheistic humanist philosophy to assert that science and religion are incompatible.

 1861 - 1865 A.D. The American Civil War divided most of the church into the Northern and Southern churches.  Some rejoined, some have not.

 1865 A.D. The Salvation Army is established by a Methodist, William Booth in London, England.

 1879 A.D. Church of Christ Scientist (Christian Science) established by Mary Baker Eddy in Boston, Mass. [Cult]

1884 A.D. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society (Jehovah’s Witness) established by Charles Taze Russell in Pittsburgh, PA.  [Cult]

 1886 - 1947 A.D. Large variety of Holiness Groups established, Church of God, Pentecostal, Assemblies of God, etc..

 1895 A.D. Sigmund Freud starts Psychoanalysis, a humanistic explanation of human behavior centered on sexual obsessions.

 1895 A.D. The Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene established in Los Angeles, California by Phineas Bressee and J.P. Widney.

1931 A.D. World Church of God established by Herbert Armstrong, came from Seventh-day Adventism

 1957 A.D. The U.S. Congregationalists merged with the Evangelical and Reformed Church to form a single denomination, the UNITED CHURCH OF CHRIST

 1960’s to Present- Large variety of “churches” imaginable and some not imaginable.  More then is possible to comment upon and identify the many unscriptural teachings.

 Final Comments:

Denominations today are marked by a wide divergence both within and without.  The lines between denominations are blurred and individuals go from one group to another.  Many attend, worship, and support  congregations without knowing their organizational beliefs. As in Jesus’ day, the Scripture is supplanted by human teachings.

 Matt 15:3

He answered and said to them, "Why do you also transgress the commandment of God because of your tradition?

 Matt 15:7-9

"Hypocrites! Well did Isaiah prophesy about you, saying:             'These people draw near to Me with their mouth, and honor Me with their lips, but their heart is far from Me.  And in vain they worship Me, teaching as doctrines the commandments of men.' "

Note: For further historical information see the following sections below.

    Methodist           Congregationalist       Restoration Movement

    Mormonism             Adventist                      Salvation Army

    Christian Science       Jehovah's Witness         Holiness

 THE METHODIST 

The Methodist came from the Church of England which was half Catholic and half Protestant in doctrine. The Methodist have a published creed, believe in Faith Only (Calvinist), teach that many churches make up the Lord’s body, use both the “Mix N Match” the Old and New Testaments,  practice infant baptism, teach baptism is not essential,  sprinkle for baptism but allow all other methods,

 1729 A.D. - 1784 A.D. John Wesley began formulating this new church while part of the Church of England He organized small "societies" within the Church of England for religious sharing, Bible  study, prayer, and preaching. Influence by Moravian Church.

1744 A.D. To preserve personal fellowship, "bands" and "class meetings" were formed, and the whole was brought together  by John Wesley in the British Conference

1784 A.D.  Church of England refused to ordain Wesley’s preachers so he did it himself.

1791 A.D. John Wesley died. The relationship between the Methodists and the Church of England was unclear, although Wesley's ordination of "clergy" for work in America made a breach likely.

1795 A.D.  The separation was formalized when the Conference of 1795 asserted that Methodist preachers could administer sacraments without ordination by the Church of England.

1797 - 1815 A.D. A number of divisions soon took place among the Methodists. The Methodist New Connection, the Primitive Methodist Church, and the Bible Christians separated from the Conference

1784 A.D. Wesley's actual ordination of two missionaries and appointment of Thomas COKE as  "superintendent" for America led to the formation of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Baltimore.

1816 -1870 A.D. Three large black churches were also organized, largely in protest against racial

   prejudice: 1816 A.D. The African Methodist Episcopal Church, 1820 A.D. The African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, 1870 A.D. The Colored (later Christian) Methodist Episcopal Church .

1830 A.D.  In a controversy over Episcopal authority, the Methodist Protestant Church was formed by a strongly liberal minority

1843 A.D.  The Wesleyan Methodist Church of America was started by a group of antislavery Methodists.

1844 A.D. The General Conference split over issues related to slavery and Episcopal authority, and the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, was formed at the Louisville convention in 1845.

1860A.D. The Free Methodist Church established, which was antislavery and theologically perfectionist.

1907 & 1932 A.D. They were reunited in two mergers with the main branch to form the Methodist Church in Britain.

1939 A.D. The Methodist Church formed by the Northern and Southern branches and the Methodist Protestants, reunion was achieved. A racially identified central jurisdiction remained a source of controversy until its abolition in 1968.

1968 A.D. The church merged with the EVANGELICAL UNITED BRETHREN CHURCH to form the United Methodist Church. The church maintains a large Methodist publishing house, Abingdon Press, hospitals and homes, and institutions of higher learning, including 13 theological seminaries.

 

CONGREGATIONALISTS: The Congregationalists came from the Church of England. They  have a published creed, believe in Faith Only, are Calvinist,   practice infant baptism, teach baptism is not essential,  sprinkle for baptism but allow all other methods,

 1600 A.D. Congregationalism, from the Church of England; a form of Protestant church organization based on the autonomy of each congregation, emerged as part of the liberal wing of PURITANISM in the English REFORMATION. By 1600, many clergymen were calling for reform in the Church of England, arguing that the key to adequate change was to grant local congregations autonomy. They opposed Presbyterians, who wished to  manage churches by means of district assemblies, and Anglicans, who wanted bishops for the  same purpose

 1620 A.D. Pilgrims at Plymouth Mass. Established the first Congregational Church in the US. Were called Separatists because they refused to associate with the Church of England anymore

1628 A.D. Massachusetts Bay Company colonist formed Congregational Church. They were the non-Separatists, who did not openly break with the Church of England, increasing persecution led many to emigrate to New England

1640 A.D. Congregationalist Churches in New England become united.   Controlling civil governments in every colony [except Rhode Island]  no other type of church was  allowed in the area until 1690, when English authorities forced them to tolerate other religious groups.

1790 A.D. Congregationalists formed the largest, strongest church in America.

 1818 & 1834 A.D. State government support for Congregationalist churches did not end until 1818 in Connecticut and not until 1834 in Massachusetts.

 1957 A.D. The U.S. Congregationalists merged with the Evangelical and Reformed Church to form a single denomination, the UNITED CHURCH OF CHRIST

 

RESTORATION MOVEMENT:  HISTORY OF THE Biblical CHURCH IN AMERICA

1792  JAMES O’KELLY Methodist preacher in North Carolina and Virginia.  Split over establishment of a Superintendent over Methodist.  Formed the Republican Methodist Church.

1794 A.D. O’kelley Dropped their name and called themselves only “Christians” after the Bible example.  Decided to accept only Jesus as Head of the church, accept only the Bible eliminating creeds, church fellowship and membership based only on a persons character as a Christian, the right for each person for religious self-determination.

 1803 A.D. Abner Jones and Elias Smith established churches following only the Bible in Vermont and New Hampshire

1800 A.D. Barton Stone was a Presbyterian preacher who realized there was a conflict between preaching salvation and the doctrines of Calvin adopted by Presbyterians.

 1804 A.D. Established the Springfield Presbytery, but disbanded in a few months realizing such an organization was also unscriptural.  They adopted the name only of “Christian.”  Determined to use the Bible as the only guide to heaven.

 1809 A.D. Thomas Campbell a Presbyterian minister in Pennsylvania split from them over the use of creeds.  His son Alexander Campbell joined his father from Ireland having come to the conclusion that there was but one unified church that Jesus built, the Bible can neither be added to or taken away from, people can not be forced into obedience but must follow the Bible as they understand it.  His Father agreed.

 1811 A.D. The Campbell’s joined a Baptist Association.

 1823 A.D. The Mahoning Baptist Association which Campbells were a part of started preaching the New Testaments steps for becoming a Christian.

1830 A.D. The Mahoning Baptist Association dissolved itself having come to realize they were an unscriptural organization

1831 A.D. Campbell and the ex-Baptists join Barton Stone and fellow Christians to practice New Testament Christianity.

1861 - 1865 A.D. The American Civil War did not divide the church as it did the denominations but it did distance the North and Southern churches for a while.

 1850 -1906 A.D. A Split over the bring in of instrumental music and Missionary Societies occurred.  Those sticking to the scriptures and not using these two items were the churches of Christ.  Those slipping back into Denominationalism were the Christian Church sometimes called Church of Christ Christian.

1950-1960 A.D. A Split over the use of Human institutions, unscriptural use of church funds, sponsoring churches, social gospel.  Both resulting groups use church of Christ.  Those going into Denominationalism are called “liberals” by those sticking with the Bible who call themselves “conservative”.  “Liberals” call “Conservative” group “Anti’s” (Against everything).

  

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints: Mormon

Joseph Smith has a checkered, immoral, criminal history as does the Mormon church itself.  Joseph Smith was convicted of “Money-digging” using a “peek-stone”  in Mar. 20, 1826 in his home in New York State.  This was during the time when he later claimed God spoke to him to create a new religion, the angel gave him the golden plate from 430 A.D. to be translated from “Reformed Egyptian.”  When the original group Smith selected to aid him in establishing this new religion began notifying neighbors and authorities about this “Religious Hoax”, Smith suddenly received a revelation to move to Nauvoo, Illinois. Smith secretly practiced polygamy.  In 1842 “The Nauvoo Expositor” began revealing this and other immoral practices. Joseph Smith  and his brother Hyrum Smith were arrested for destroying the Newspaper in 1844. The Smith brothers were never brought to trial. A “lynching” party hung them.  Brigham Young led the remaining Mormons to Utah.  The Mormons went far beyond creeds, they made their own Bible and supplementary inspired books.  Leaders claim inspiration yet today.  Their writings are filled with errors, pieces of literary works, bits from the King James Version of the Bible, etc..  They teach polytheism (many Gods), that man becomes God. Jesus came to get rid of original sin,  Holy Spirit is a force not a being, baptism for the dead, Sabbath keepers, etc..

1830 A.D. Joseph Smith established Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints

1844 A.D. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Stramg Breaks off

1860 A.D. Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints breaks off

1862 A.D. Church of Christ Bickerton Breaks off

1867 A.D. Church of Christ Temple Lot breaks off

 

SEVENTH-DAY ADVENTIST

Sabbath-day keepers, Old & New mixed, Soul Sleep, Wicked souls annihilated, heaven on Earth, new Revelation, do not believe Jesus provided remission of sin. Many strange doctrines and beliefs.

1818 A.D. Baptist William Miller predicted the Second Coming of Jesus to occur in 1843 A.D.  (From Daniel and Revelation)

1843 A.D. Miller has a large following from many religions.  Jesus did not come. New Calculation predicts Oct. 22, 1844.

1844 A.D. Miller admits his error, gives up 2nd coming idea.  Soon dies.  Miller himself believes in none of the things the current Seventh-Day Adventist does.

1844 A.D. Three groups come together from the Miller disciples to form the Adventist group. A Gnostic, mystic group with a mysterious “Sanctuary” theology.  A group that believes they have the spirit of Prophecy.  A group that are Sabbath keepers.

1846 A.D. Ellen G. White and other systemize the fusion religion and explained that Jesus did come in 1844 but was the mystical heavenly sanctuary he visited.

 THE SALVATION ARMY

The Salvation Army is an international Christian evangelical organization that was founded in London in 1865 by William BOOTH , a Methodist minister and evangelistic preacher. As a religious movement engaged in social services, the army has, since its inception, made a goal of approaching sociological problems.

 1878 A.D. Adopted the name, the Salvation Army.  It  is operated on a military pattern. Ministers are officers with military rank, and the general, headquarters in London, is the army's top international leader. Parishioners are soldiers, the main center of worship is the corps, and the Articles of War are signed as a declaration of faith by enrolling Salvationists. Both officers and soldiers are entitled, as missionaries of God, to wear the army uniform and to bear the symbolic red shield.  Basic training for each officer, following a required high school education, is a 2-year in-residence course at a Salvation Army School for Officers' Training. Besides formal study, the curriculum includes practical field experience in corps community centers and other institutions as well as orientation in all possible areas of Salvation Army service.

 Salvation Army assistance is given without regard to race, age, sex, creed, or condition. Among its many programs are correctional services for prisoners and parolees, day care, senior citizen clubs and residences, summer camps, emergency and disaster services, missing persons bureaus, rehabilitation for alcoholism and drug abuse, family counseling, and visitation to institutionalized individuals.

 The Salvation Army stresses music rather than the sacraments; music has been made an integral part of its ministry. Salvation Army brass bands, string combos, and vocal groups exist the world over. A accept all beliefs attitude.

 CHRISTIAN SCIENCE

Christian Science was developed by Mary Baker Eddy in 1865 - 1910.  Mrs. Eddy was a sickly both physically and mentally as a child and adult.  In 1865 she visited a Hypnotist (P.P. Quimby) who was convince most sickness was a result of mental problems (psychosomatic).  After sessions Mrs. Eddy would get revelations from “God”. In 1875 she published her material,” Science and Health”.  In 1879 Mrs. Eddy established a “church” based on her ideas.  Christian science teaches that matter does not exist, death is an illusion, sin and evil do not exist,  sickness is mental and can be mentally cured,  All Scripture disagreeing with Mrs. Eddy is a lie, Mrs. Eddy’s work is inspired, they are pantheist (God is everything, everything is God, man is God). Angels are pure thought, Mrs. Eddy’s pure thoughts produced angels.  Writings are rambling, confused, conflicting.  It should be noted that Mrs. Eddy died Dec. 2, 1910.  She taught death was not real and if you didn’t believe in it you would not die.

 JEHOVAH’S WITNESS

Established by Charles T. Russel.  Russel was first a Presbyterian and then a Seven-day Adventist.  Many of the doctrines of the Jehovah's witness are modified from the Adventist; Including a secret return of Jesus in 1914 and Christ return to a spiritual temple in 1918.  They also deny the Godhead believing the Holy Spirit to be a “force” and Jesus to be an Archangel.  The Jehovah's Witness is a religion of denial.  The body of their belief is to deny traditional Christian beliefs and to attack all others.  Russell's many encounters with the law engender a hatred of government.  He was constantly being taken to court for scandal after scandal in which he bilked followers out of funds.  They deny the Bible’s concept of heaven, hell, salvation,  Old and New Testaments.   Their translation of the Bible, “New World Translation,” is filled with perversions and dishonest passages designed to support their false doctrines. [As the Catholics did in the Fourth Century.]

 THE HOLINESS GROUPS

Several groups started from 1886 to 1947A.D. claiming the baptism of the Holy Spirit had passed on to them as the Apostles in Acts 2.  They also claim to speak in tongues and perform miracles.  Some handle snakes and drink poison.   This is an emotion laden, feel good religion, mixing Old and New Testament together with little concern for Biblical support for their Beliefs.  Great variety exists within Holiness groups.

 


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