Bible27: Informational Web Site Edited & Maintained by Bobby G. Goodman Jr.
THE MODERN AGE 1800’S - Present
AND MOVEMENTS OF THE MODERN AGE
1. “THE ENLIGHTENMENT”: RATIONALISM The belief that fundamental knowledge is based on human reason and the
truth is found by rational analysis of ideas independent of empirical date,
emotive attitudes, or authoritative pronouncements.
Rationalism is essentially philosophy skeptical about the Scripture and
2. DEISM The
belief, based solely on reason, in the existence of a God as the creator of the
universe who after setting it in motion abandoned it, assumed no control over
life, exerted no influence on natural phenomena, and gave no revelation.
God reveals himself through natural scientific laws and cannot reveal
himself through the Bible. (Rousseau,
3. A NEW MYSTICISM: CULTS Romanticism,
transcendentalism, spiritualism and others proliferate.
Cults based on “New and Special Revelation”, kin to Gnostics, are
established. [Mormons, Adventist, Jehovah’s Witness, Christian Science, etc..]
4. DENOMINATIONALISM The
tendency to separate into religious sects. (denomination- the act of naming)
American freedom of religion encourages the breaking down of large
religious groups into smaller sects upon even small disagreements and the
formation of new groups which mix different doctrines and beliefs from many
religions and philosophy. (Mix N Match religions)
Large religious bodies also break into different groups based on
ethnicity and language. (German, Dutch, Swiss, etc...)
5. EVANGELISM, REVIVALS, AND SOCIAL REFORM
becomes the location for religious activities.
Most new ideas and groups are originated in America where a great
religious fervor exists. Great
movements to convert others by Evangelism mark the 1800’s.
Revivals and camp meetings are very common methods being used.
America exports their new religions back to Europe.
A new emphasis is placed on social missions.
Religious groups establish benevolence organizations, Religious Schools,
Seminaries, social reform movements.
6. THE RESTORATION MOVEMENT The tremendous lack of unity, religious rationalism and unscriptural
practices; provokes several simultaneous movements to return to the original New
Testament Christianity. Many
individuals recognized current religious practices have little in common with
the Scripture, the religious groups are far too corrupt and tradition bound to
“fix”, and simply adhering strictly to the Bible would return a person to
the original New Testament church and religion.
The first half of the 1800’s is used to figure out just what the
original faith that Jesus taught was like and what things were human additions.
MODERN AGE 1800’S - 1996
1784 - 1795 A.D. The Methodist Church established
from the Church of England by John Wesley.
1795 A.D. Deism declared the official religion
1790’s Nationalism of American churches
Universalist Church established (God will save everyone)
1792 A.D. - 1840 A.D.
“Restoration Movements”, Several
groups decide to return to the New Testament church rather then continuing to
try and reform current denominations.
1800’s American Denominationalism: many medium size sects form from “Mix-N-Match” groups,
which mix different doctrines and beliefs and form new groups. Main churches break into ethnic groups [German, Swiss, Dutch,
etc..] Methodist, Baptist, and
Christians make the greatest gains.
1810 A.D. Spain ends the Inquisition and
reduces the power of the Catholic Church
American churches commit to missionary and social missions. In many cases exporting the modified religions back to
1830 A.D. Joseph Smith establishes The Church
of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormons) in Seneca County, New York.
1831 A.D. Campbell and Barton Stone movements
join to practice New Testament Christianity.
1844 A.D. The General Conference split over
issues related to slavery and Episcopal authority, and the Methodist Episcopal
Church, South, was formed at the Louisville convention in 1845.
1844 A.D. Seventh-Day Adventist established by
William Miller, Ellen G. White in New York. [Cult] Grew out of the old Church of
God (Seventh Day) established in England 1620.
1859 A.D. Evolutionary
Theory by Charles Darwin, provides a medium for atheistic humanist
philosophy to assert that science and religion are incompatible.
1861 - 1865 A.D. The American Civil War
divided most of the church into the Northern and Southern churches. Some rejoined, some have not.
1865 A.D. The Salvation Army is established by
a Methodist, William Booth in London, England.
1879 A.D. Church of Christ Scientist
(Christian Science) established by Mary Baker Eddy in Boston, Mass. [Cult]
1884 A.D. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society (Jehovah’s
Witness) established by Charles Taze Russell in Pittsburgh, PA.
1886 - 1947 A.D. Large variety of Holiness Groups established,
Church of God, Pentecostal, Assemblies of God, etc..
1895 A.D. Sigmund Freud starts Psychoanalysis,
a humanistic explanation of human behavior centered on sexual obsessions.
1895 A.D. The Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene
established in Los Angeles, California by Phineas Bressee and J.P. Widney.
1931 A.D. World Church of God established by Herbert
Armstrong, came from Seventh-day Adventism
1957 A.D. The U.S. Congregationalists merged
with the Evangelical and Reformed Church to form a single denomination, the UNITED
CHURCH OF CHRIST
1960’s to Present- Large variety of “churches” imaginable and some not imaginable. More then is possible to comment upon and identify the many unscriptural teachings.
Denominations today are marked by a wide divergence both
within and without. The lines
between denominations are blurred and individuals go from one group to another.
Many attend, worship, and support congregations
without knowing their organizational beliefs. As in Jesus’ day, the Scripture
is supplanted by human teachings.
He answered and said to them, "Why do you also
transgress the commandment of God because of your tradition?
"Hypocrites! Well did Isaiah prophesy about you,
'These people draw near to Me with their mouth, and honor Me with their
lips, but their heart is far from Me. And
in vain they worship Me, teaching as doctrines the commandments of men.' "
Note: For further historical information see the following sections below.
The Methodist came from the Church of England which
was half Catholic and half Protestant in doctrine. The Methodist have a
published creed, believe in Faith Only (Calvinist), teach that many churches
make up the Lord’s body, use both the “Mix N Match” the Old and New
Testaments, practice infant
baptism, teach baptism is not essential, sprinkle
for baptism but allow all other methods,
A.D. - 1784 A.D. John Wesley began formulating this new church while part of the Church of England He organized small "societies" within the Church of England
for religious sharing, Bible study,
prayer, and preaching. Influence by Moravian Church.
A.D. To preserve personal fellowship, "bands" and "class
meetings" were formed, and the whole was brought together
by John Wesley in the British Conference
A.D. Church of England refused to
ordain Wesley’s preachers so he did it himself.
A.D. John Wesley died. The relationship between the Methodists and the Church of
England was unclear, although Wesley's ordination of "clergy" for work
in America made a breach likely.
A.D. The separation was formalized
when the Conference of 1795 asserted that Methodist preachers could administer
sacraments without ordination by the Church of England.
- 1815 A.D. A number of divisions soon took place among the Methodists. The
Methodist New Connection, the Primitive Methodist Church, and the Bible
Christians separated from the Conference
A.D. Wesley's actual ordination of two missionaries and appointment of Thomas
COKE as "superintendent"
for America led to the formation of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Baltimore.
-1870 A.D. Three large black churches were also organized, largely in protest
prejudice: 1816 A.D. The African Methodist Episcopal Church, 1820 A.D.
The African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, 1870 A.D. The Colored (later
Christian) Methodist Episcopal Church .
A.D. In a controversy over
Episcopal authority, the Methodist Protestant Church was formed by a strongly
A.D. The Wesleyan Methodist Church
of America was started by a group of antislavery Methodists.
A.D. The General Conference split over issues related to slavery and Episcopal
authority, and the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, was formed at the
Louisville convention in 1845.
The Free Methodist Church established, which was antislavery and theologically
& 1932 A.D. They were reunited in two mergers with the main branch to form
the Methodist Church in Britain.
A.D. The Methodist Church formed by the Northern and Southern branches and the
Methodist Protestants, reunion was achieved. A racially identified central
jurisdiction remained a source of controversy until its abolition in 1968.
A.D. The church merged with the EVANGELICAL UNITED BRETHREN CHURCH to form the
United Methodist Church. The church maintains a large Methodist publishing
house, Abingdon Press, hospitals and homes, and institutions of higher learning,
including 13 theological seminaries.
Congregationalists came from the Church of England. They
have a published creed, believe in Faith Only, are Calvinist,
practice infant baptism, teach baptism is not essential,
sprinkle for baptism but allow all other methods,
A.D. Congregationalism, from the Church of England; a form of Protestant church
organization based on the autonomy of each congregation, emerged as part of the
liberal wing of PURITANISM in the English REFORMATION. By 1600, many clergymen
were calling for reform in the Church of England, arguing that the key to
adequate change was to grant local congregations autonomy. They opposed
Presbyterians, who wished to manage
churches by means of district assemblies, and Anglicans, who wanted bishops for
the same purpose
A.D. Pilgrims at Plymouth Mass. Established the first Congregational Church in
the US. Were called Separatists because they refused to associate with the
Church of England anymore
A.D. Massachusetts Bay Company colonist formed Congregational Church. They were
the non-Separatists, who did not openly break with the Church of England,
increasing persecution led many to emigrate to New England
A.D. Congregationalist Churches in New England become united.
Controlling civil governments in every colony [except Rhode Island]
no other type of church was allowed
in the area until 1690, when English authorities forced them to tolerate other
A.D. Congregationalists formed the largest, strongest church in America.
& 1834 A.D. State government support for Congregationalist churches did not
end until 1818 in Connecticut and not until 1834 in Massachusetts.
A.D. The U.S. Congregationalists merged with the Evangelical and Reformed Church
to form a single denomination, the UNITED CHURCH OF CHRIST
MOVEMENT: HISTORY OF THE Biblical
CHURCH IN AMERICA
JAMES O’KELLY Methodist preacher in North Carolina and Virginia.
Split over establishment of a Superintendent over Methodist. Formed the Republican Methodist Church.
A.D. O’kelley Dropped their name and called themselves only “Christians”
after the Bible example. Decided to
accept only Jesus as Head of the church, accept only the Bible eliminating
creeds, church fellowship and membership based only on a persons character as a
Christian, the right for each person for religious self-determination.
A.D. Abner Jones and Elias Smith established churches following only the Bible
in Vermont and New Hampshire
A.D. Barton Stone was a Presbyterian preacher who realized there was a conflict
between preaching salvation and the doctrines of Calvin adopted by
A.D. Established the Springfield Presbytery, but disbanded in a few months
realizing such an organization was also unscriptural. They adopted the name only of “Christian.”
Determined to use the Bible as the only guide to heaven.
A.D. Thomas Campbell a Presbyterian minister in Pennsylvania split from them
over the use of creeds. His son
Alexander Campbell joined his father from Ireland having come to the conclusion
that there was but one unified church that Jesus built, the Bible can neither be
added to or taken away from, people can not be forced into obedience but must
follow the Bible as they understand it. His
A.D. The Campbell’s joined a Baptist Association.
A.D. The Mahoning Baptist Association which Campbells were a part of started
preaching the New Testaments steps for becoming a Christian.
A.D. The Mahoning Baptist Association dissolved itself having come to realize
they were an
A.D. Campbell and the ex-Baptists join Barton Stone and fellow Christians to
practice New Testament Christianity.
- 1865 A.D. The American Civil War did not divide the church as it did the
denominations but it did distance the North and Southern churches for a while.
-1906 A.D. A Split over the bring in of instrumental music and Missionary
Societies occurred. Those
sticking to the scriptures and not using these two items were the churches of
Christ. Those slipping back into
Denominationalism were the Christian Church sometimes called Church of Christ
A.D. A Split over the use of Human institutions, unscriptural use of church
funds, sponsoring churches, social gospel.
Both resulting groups use church of Christ. Those going into Denominationalism are called “liberals”
by those sticking with the Bible who call themselves “conservative”.
“Liberals” call “Conservative” group “Anti’s” (Against
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints: Mormon
Smith has a checkered, immoral, criminal history as does the Mormon church
itself. Joseph Smith was convicted
of “Money-digging” using a “peek-stone”
in Mar. 20, 1826 in his home in New York State.
This was during the time when he later claimed God spoke to him to create
a new religion, the angel gave him the golden plate from 430 A.D. to be
translated from “Reformed Egyptian.” When
the original group Smith selected to aid him in establishing this new religion
began notifying neighbors and authorities about this “Religious Hoax”, Smith
suddenly received a revelation to move to Nauvoo, Illinois. Smith secretly
practiced polygamy. In 1842 “The
Nauvoo Expositor” began revealing this and other immoral practices. Joseph
Smith and his brother Hyrum Smith
were arrested for destroying the Newspaper in 1844. The Smith brothers were
never brought to trial. A “lynching” party hung them. Brigham Young led the remaining Mormons to Utah.
The Mormons went far beyond creeds, they made their own Bible and
supplementary inspired books. Leaders
claim inspiration yet today. Their
writings are filled with errors, pieces of literary works, bits from the King
James Version of the Bible, etc.. They
teach polytheism (many Gods), that man becomes God. Jesus came to get rid of
original sin, Holy Spirit is a
force not a being, baptism for the dead, Sabbath keepers, etc..
A.D. Joseph Smith established Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints
A.D. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Stramg Breaks off
A.D. Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints breaks off
A.D. Church of Christ Bickerton Breaks off
A.D. Church of Christ Temple Lot breaks off
keepers, Old & New mixed, Soul Sleep, Wicked souls annihilated, heaven on
Earth, new Revelation, do not believe Jesus provided remission of sin. Many
strange doctrines and beliefs.
A.D. Baptist William Miller predicted the Second Coming of Jesus to occur in
1843 A.D. (From Daniel and
A.D. Miller has a large following from many religions.
Jesus did not come. New Calculation predicts Oct. 22, 1844.
A.D. Miller admits his error, gives up 2nd coming idea.
Soon dies. Miller himself
believes in none of the things the current Seventh-Day Adventist does.
A.D. Three groups come together from the Miller disciples to form the Adventist
group. A Gnostic, mystic group with a mysterious “Sanctuary” theology.
A group that believes they have the spirit of Prophecy.
A group that are Sabbath keepers.
A.D. Ellen G. White and other systemize the fusion religion and explained that
Jesus did come in 1844 but was the mystical heavenly sanctuary he visited.
Salvation Army is an international Christian evangelical organization that was
founded in London in 1865 by William BOOTH , a Methodist minister and
evangelistic preacher. As a religious movement engaged in social services, the
army has, since its inception, made a goal of approaching sociological problems.
A.D. Adopted the name, the Salvation Army.
It is operated on a military
pattern. Ministers are officers with military rank, and the general,
headquarters in London, is the army's top international leader. Parishioners are
soldiers, the main center of worship is the corps, and the Articles of War are
signed as a declaration of faith by enrolling Salvationists. Both officers and
soldiers are entitled, as missionaries of God, to wear the army uniform and to
bear the symbolic red shield. Basic
training for each officer, following a required high school education, is a
2-year in-residence course at a Salvation Army School for Officers' Training.
Besides formal study, the curriculum includes practical field experience in
corps community centers and other institutions as well as orientation in all
possible areas of Salvation Army service.
Army assistance is given without regard to race, age, sex, creed, or condition.
Among its many programs are correctional services for prisoners and parolees,
day care, senior citizen clubs and residences, summer camps, emergency and
disaster services, missing persons bureaus, rehabilitation for alcoholism and
drug abuse, family counseling, and visitation to institutionalized individuals.
Salvation Army stresses music rather than the sacraments; music has been made an
integral part of its ministry. Salvation Army brass bands, string combos, and
vocal groups exist the world over. A accept all beliefs attitude.
Science was developed by Mary Baker Eddy in 1865 - 1910.
Mrs. Eddy was a sickly both physically and mentally as a child and adult.
In 1865 she visited a Hypnotist (P.P. Quimby) who was convince most
sickness was a result of mental problems (psychosomatic).
After sessions Mrs. Eddy would get revelations from “God”. In 1875
she published her material,” Science and Health”.
In 1879 Mrs. Eddy established a “church” based on her ideas.
Christian science teaches that matter does not exist, death is an
illusion, sin and evil do not exist, sickness
is mental and can be mentally cured, All
Scripture disagreeing with Mrs. Eddy is a lie, Mrs. Eddy’s work is inspired,
they are pantheist (God is everything, everything is God, man is God). Angels
are pure thought, Mrs. Eddy’s pure thoughts produced angels.
Writings are rambling, confused, conflicting. It should be noted that Mrs. Eddy died Dec. 2, 1910.
She taught death was not real and if you didn’t believe in it you would
by Charles T. Russel. Russel was
first a Presbyterian and then a Seven-day Adventist.
Many of the doctrines of the Jehovah's witness are modified from the
Adventist; Including a secret return of Jesus in 1914 and Christ return to a
spiritual temple in 1918. They also
deny the Godhead believing the Holy Spirit to be a “force” and Jesus to be
an Archangel. The Jehovah's Witness
is a religion of denial. The body
of their belief is to deny traditional Christian beliefs and to attack all
others. Russell's many encounters
with the law engender a hatred of government.
He was constantly being taken to court for scandal after scandal in which
he bilked followers out of funds. They
deny the Bible’s concept of heaven, hell, salvation,
Old and New Testaments. Their
translation of the Bible, “New World Translation,” is filled with
perversions and dishonest passages designed to support their false doctrines.
[As the Catholics did in the Fourth Century.]
groups started from 1886 to 1947A.D. claiming the baptism of the Holy Spirit had
passed on to them as the Apostles in Acts 2. They also claim to speak in tongues and perform miracles.
Some handle snakes and drink poison.
This is an emotion laden, feel good religion, mixing Old and New
Testament together with little concern for Biblical support for their Beliefs.
Great variety exists within Holiness groups.
. E-Mail Bob Goodman