Bible27: Informational Web Site Edited & Maintained by Bobby G. Goodman Jr.
RENAISSANCE AND REFORMATION
- 1800 A.D.
INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW
1300 - 1600 A.D. RENAISSANCE
the French word for rebirth, and originally referred to the revival of the
values and artistic styles of classical antiquity (Greek & Roman) especially
in Italy. It is characterized by
the rise of the individual, scientific inquiry and geographical exploration, and
the growth of secular values. Made
possible in part by the Black Plague.
Humanism became the major intellectual movement of the period,
and its achievements became permanent. By the 15th century intensive study of
the Greek as well as Latin classics, ancient art and archaeology, and classical
history, had given Renaissance scholars a more sophisticated view of antiquity.
The ancient past was now viewed as past, to be admired and imitated, but not to
be revived. Students from many European nations had come to Italy to study the
classics, philosophy, and the remains of antiquity, eventually spreading the
As the Renaissance values came to the north, they were transformed.
Northern humanists such as Desiderius ERASMUS of the Netherlands and John Colet
(c.1467-1519) of England planted the first seeds of the Reformation when they
endeavored to discover the original intent and meaning of the New Testament by
applying to it the critical historical methods developed in Italy. The northern
humanists--who, like their Italian counterparts, served as advisors to kings and
princes--created a flexible, colloquial Latin style so that their writings would
have a broad appeal. Through their efforts, knowledge of classical mythology,
ancient history, and Greek and Latin literary forms became widespread and was
soon absorbed into the vernacular literature.
Some outcomes of the Renaissance:
Humanism: philosophy (synthesizing
& Mixing) , human nature & condition- Survival of fittest (no-God) &
live for today attitude, ancient studies and Documents
Metaphysics, occult, magic, astrology
Science: medicine, physics, math
Arts: architecture, painting,
sculpture, poetry, plays, etc..
DURING THE REFORMATION
Humanism, an educational and philosophical outlook that emphasizes
the personal worth of the individual and the central importance of human values
as opposed to religious belief.. Humanism
began as an educational program called the humanities, which instilled
those ancient secular values which were consistent with Christian teachings. The
Renaissance humanists were often devout Christians, but they promoted secular
values and a love of pagan antiquity.
Humanism produced two
movements: The Reformation and
modern Humanism (Social Darwinism, Environmentalism, Evolution, etc...)
- 1457 A.D. Lorenzo Valla one
of the greatest classical scholars and text editors of his Age, proved that the
Donation of Constantine, a medieval document that supported papal claims to
temporal authority, was a forgery.
- 1536 A.D. ERASMUS of the Netherlands was the most influential of the
Christian Humanists. In his Colloquies and Praise of Folly (1509), Erasmus
satirized the corruptions of his contemporaries, especially the clergy, in
comparison with the teachings of the Bible, early Christianity, and the best of
pagan thinkers. In his Adages (1500 and later editions), he showed the
consistency of Christian teachings with ancient pagan wisdom. Erasmus devoted
most of his energy and learning, however, to establishing sound editions of the
sources of the Christian tradition, such as his Greek New Testament (1516) and
translations of the Greek and Latin FATHERS OF THE CHURCH.
Influenced Luther, Calvin, Zwingli, etc..
Later Types of Humanism
By the 18th century the word humanism had come to be identified with a
purely secular attitude--one that often rejected Christianity altogether. The
American Humanist Association, which grew out of the Unitarian movement, holds
that human beings can satisfy religious needs from within, discarding the
concept of God as inconsistent with advanced thought and human freedom. In
recent years, fundamentalist Christian groups in the United States have declared
their opposition to "secular humanism," an anti-religious ideology
that they believe pervades American society, including the major churches, and
that they blame for its moral failings.
RENAISSANCE AND REFORMATION 1300 -
1309 - 1377 A.D. “Babylonian Captivity of the
Papacy”- King of
France (Philip IV) imprisons Pope Boniface VIII in a war over taxes levied
against Catholic Church Property and Personnel.
Boniface dies and Philip
wins. Philip appoints a French Cardinal to the Papacy, Clement V.
Clement takes his orders from Philip, moves to Avignon near France for
Safety and luxury. The luxurious
and worldly nature of Avignon resulted in a highly corrupt clergy.
Greed, immorality, and irresponsibility found new heights.
Pluralism and absenteeism common as the old simony and nepotism.
A.D. Pope returns to Rome to dilapidated property and shrunken city.
1348-1365 A.D. BLACK DEATH - BUBONIC PLAGUE:
Caused by bacteria in fleas. Symptoms
within 4 days of exposure, extremely painful death in five days for body
infection, three days for lung
infected. 75 Million killed in
Europe alone. 1/3rd population of
Europe and 1/2 the population of England. Decimated
the Monasteries, brought on the end of serfdom, seriously damaged the power of
the Roman Catholic Church. Provided
sudden wealth for survivors which financed the Renaissance.
- 1384 A.D. John Wycliff rejects
Papal Authority, Poor Preachers and
Lollards. First English Bible.
- 1417 A.D. The Great Papal Schism. Different
geographical sections of the Catholic church elect their own Pope.
Two to three Popes exist at the same time.
Pope Dies and under pressure from Roman citizen a new Italian Pope is
elected- Urban VI. He seriously
starts a reform of the Luxurious evils the Cardinals enjoyed.
2/3 rds are French.
French Cardinals gather at Avignon and revoke Urban’s election saying
the Roman citizens threatened them to elect Urban.
They Elect their own Pope a relative of the King of France.
Urban will not submit, the Catholics have two rival Popes.
National alignments occur:
Pope: Spain, France, Scotland, some
Pope: Italy, England, Scandinavia,
Bohemia, Poland, Gflandersm, Portugal, and most of Germany.
A.D. Council of Pisa revokes both Popes and elects new Pope.
Council and New Pope are ignored.
A.D. Powerful German King calls a Council of Constance.
Council convinces one Pope to step down, 2nd Pope to charged with crimes
and deposed, 3rd Pope charged with crimes and exiled.
Elect a single New Pope. This
incident convinced many that the Papacy was worthless and hopelessly corrupt.
Left the Catholic Church with many demanding reforms and a Pope not
inclined to make any changes. He allows old evils to continue.
Steady decline in power both spiritual and civil continues.
A.D. Movable Type invented
- 1536 A.D. ERASMUS of the Netherlands encourages study of ancient books
- 1546 A.D. Martin Luther. German
Reformer. Founded Lutheran Church.
1513 A.D. Developed Doctrine of Faith Only (imputed righteousness)
1517 A.D. ninety-five Theses nailed to Catholic Church door.
1521 A.D. Excommunicated but was defended and hidden by German princes.
German princes used Luther’s reform movement to gain the authority over
church lands. Translated the Bible into German.
1524 A.D. Luther Alienated other reformers
1. Humanist by arguing with Erasmus
2. Dedicated reformers by keeping many unscriptural traditions
3. Peasants rebellion by his association with the Nobles who
direct his path. Luther ignored
Nobles immortality to maintain their support.
1555 A.D. Northern Germany, Northern Europe become Lutherans and secure
Catholic lands. Fought a war
to win religious self-determination by
Beliefs of Luther
1. Faith Only, human
2. Clergy and Laity are both equally important.
Serve God in their own ways, all are priests.
3. Church should be ruled by the state.
4. Baptism for original sin which is passed on during sex,
need for infant baptism
5. Clergy marriage is good
- 1531 Ulrich Zwingli, Swiss Reformer, Started Swiss Reformed Church
1520 A.D. Survived the Black Death.
Believed this meant God has chosen him.
He was against all beliefs not specifically commanded in the New
1522 A.D. Broke with Catholic Church: against relics, altars, candles,
clerical Robes, organs, choirs, pictures, icons, celibacy (was very immoral as a
Catholic). But continued predestination, infant baptism, baptism
as mere sign of God’s convent, taught Visible church was all Christians, their
children. The invisible Church was
Christians and Good
heathens. (Cross Roads movement), Lord’s Supper Symbolic.
1531 A.D. Killed in Battle against Catholic
invaders. Switzerland also gains right of religious self-determination.
- 1564 A.D. John Calvin
Reformer residing in Geneva, Switzerland.
Established systematic reform, church organization reform on an
1536 - 1559 A.D. Institutes of the Christian Religion which was a defense
of French Protestants to the French King. Believed
in Total Hereditary depravity, unconditional Salvation, limited atonement,
irresistible grace, pre-destination. A
Presbyterian organization (plurality of equal overseers).
Pastor Elders, Ruling Elders, teacher, deacons, Baptism a sign,
infant baptism OK, mixed up Old and New Testament,
A Calvinist church will usually have the term “reformed” or
“Presbyterian” in the Name. Influenced most reformers after his time.
A.D. Anabaptists, or rebaptizers
rejected infant BAPTISM. Since they believed that only after an adult had
come to faith in Christ should he or she be baptized, they taught that converts
who had been baptized in infancy must be rebaptized) Claimed direct inspiration by the Holy Spirit. The
Anabaptists refused to take oaths, opposed capital punishment, and rejected
military service. Their beliefs made them appear subversive and provoked
persecution. Many of the Reformers disclaimed them, regarding them as
fundamentally opposed to the ideas of the REFORMATION.
A.D. Tyndale’s English Bible,
Tyndale burned at the stake for publishing it.
A.D. Catholic decree against anymore religious changes, those who protest earned
the name “Protestants”.
A.D., militant Anabaptists seized control of the city of Munster.
They drove out all Protestants and Roman Catholics. Set up a theocracy,
established polygamy and communal property. After a 16-month siege, the bishop
of Munster recaptured the city and executed the rebels. MENNO SIMONS, a
Dutchman, restored the reputation of the Anabaptists through his moderate and
inspired leadership. His followers have survived and are known as MENNONITES.
The HUTTERIAN BRETHREN are descendants of the group led by Hutter.
A.D. Henry VIII wanted
to divorce his wife because she had not produced an heir.
Pope would not grant such. Henry
declared himself the head of the Catholic Church in England and changed its name
to The Church of England. All money
to Rome stopped, Monasteries suppressed, English Bible placed in Churches.
(Churches outside England are called Anglican, Churches in the USA are called
1534- 1553 A.D. Henry pushes for Protestant reforms for the Church of
1553 - 1558 A.D. Henry’s
Daughter assumes the throne after his death.
She wants to return the Church of England to Catholics.
Called “Bloody Mary” for the persecution against all
Protestant groups in England. Many flee to Geneva and are influenced by
1558 A.D. Queen Elisabeth I assumes the Throne of England.
Returns to Protestant reforms combined with some Catholic elements.
catholic elements are Episcopacy (Head Bishop), use of ancient creeds,
liturgical worship. Protestant elements are rejection of a Pope,
rejected all sacraments but Baptism
and the Lord’s Supper. Rejected
A.D. Jesuits formed. Society
of Jesus dedicated to the Pope, evangelistic fervor, halted Protestant influence
in Catholic areas. expanded
Catholicism to Asia and South America.
A.D. New and radically violent
Inquisition in all Catholic countries
- 1563 A.D. Council of Trent
called to settle Protestant arguments against the Catholic Faith.
Scripture and Tradition are made equal in Authority, Apocrypha added to
Canon, Latin Vulgate official Bible, Number of sacraments established as seven
(baptism, Eucharist, confirmation, penance, ordination, extreme unction,
marriage. Mary, Saints, relics, and
purgatory affirmed. Papal authority maintained.
A.D. Index of prohibited books by the Pope published
A.D. Council of Trent made into a creed learned by all Catholics
A.D. Failure of Spain to conqueror England determined that North America
would primarily be Protestant and South America would be Catholic.
A.D. Protestants driven out by “Bloody Mary” return to England
determined to purge churches of Catholic impurities. Given the Name
A.D. Church of Scotland established as a Calvinistic and Presbyterians
A.D. Scotland and England thrones joined by King James
A.D. Jamestown settled by the Church of England. No bishop is provided until after Revolutionary war.
Jamestown had a relaxed view of religion.
A.D. First Baptist Church
A.D. King James Bible produced. King
James takes Elizabeth I path, compromise
A.D. Pilgrims separatist from England
to Holland to Plymouth seeking religious freedom
A.D. Massachusetts settled by
Church of England Puritans who came to organize a congregational and state
established church. Reject Baptist
and Quakers from their company.
- 1649 A.D. war between King of England (Charles, Episcopalian Anglicans) and
English Parliament (Puritan, Presbyterian, Calvinist)
1629 A.D. King Charles sends Parliament home.
1638 A.D. Scots rebel against state church and Charles
1641 A.D. Parliament recall by Charles to secure funds for an Army
against Scots. Parliament jails Anglican leaders and start a civil war against
1645 A.D. King Charles Royal army is defeated by the Parliamentary army
under Cromwell. Parliament develops
Calvinistic Westminster Confession.
1649 A.D. Charles is executed, Cromwell’s Army of oddball religions
1660 A.D. Upon the death of Cromwell, Presbyterians and Episcopalians
join to restore law and order in
England. Elect King Charles II.
1662 A.D. New laws passed to drive puritans from the Church of England.
They formed the “Dissenters Churches”
A.D. Maryland is settled by Catholics who wanted religious freedom for all
(Governor was William Stone, a relative of Barton Stone)
A.D. Rode Island settled by
anti-puritans. 1639 First
Baptist church established here in the colonies.
A.D. Pennsylvania settled by Quakers and many other groups.
Southern colonies are settled by Church of England.
Middle Colonies such as New York and New Jersey settled by Dutch
Reformed, Scottish and English Presbyterians
- 1688 A.D. James II tries to restore Catholicism
A.D. James II removed from office, Freedom
to Worship act passed. Assured
freedom to worship for all who pledge to support the church of England’s 39
A.D. After the Revolutionary War
the colonies break from the Old World.
American Churches become independent.
They organize into National Groups with a unified organization, worship,
A.D. Methodist Episcopal church formed
Protestant Episcopal Church
- 1788 A.D. Presbyterian Church
- 1833 A.D. states move to abandon
State Religions separating church and state.
1791 A.D. United States Constitution guarantees freedom of religion
See: Reformation Chart
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